What is Network and Type of Network !
What is a Computer Network ?
When more than one computer is connected through some medium and information is shared, this technique is called a network. This connection can be wired and also wireless, when talking about Wire Medium, it twisted. Pair cable, coaxial cable and fiber optics cable can be anything. If you talk about Wireless Medium, it can be anything from Radio Wave, Bluetooth, Infrared, Satellite.
In computing, a network is a group of two or more devices through which we can communicate. In practice, networks consist of many different computer systems connected by physical and wireless connections. A network is a collection of computers, servers, mainframes, network devices or other interconnected devices that allow sharing of data among themselves. An excellent example of a network is the Internet, which connects millions of people all over the world.
Examples of network devices
- Desktop computers, laptops, mainframes and servers
- Console and Thin Client
- Network interface card
- Switches, hubs, modems and routers
- Smartphone and tablet
What was the first computer network?
ARPANET was the first computer network to use packet switching, which was developed in the mid-1960s. It is considered to be the direct predecessor of modern Internet. The first ARPANET message was sent on 29 Oct 1969.
Types of Network
LAN (Local Area Network): –
Its full name is Local Area Network, a network that is used to connect two or more computers. A local area network is a locally functioning network, it is called a short lane. It is a computer network that covers local areas such as home, office, or building groups.
- It is limited to one room or one building.
- It has high data transfer speed.
- It does not have to hire external networks.
- Data is safe in this.
- It is easy to organize data.
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): –
Its full name is Metropolitan Area Network. It is a high-speed network that uses voice, data and images at speeds up to 200 megabytes per second or more, 75 km. Can be carried to a distance of It is a network larger than LAN (LAN) and smaller than WAN (WAN). Through this network, one city is connected to another city.
Under this, two or more local area networks are connected together. It is a computer network located within the boundaries of a city. Routers, switches and hubs together form a metropolitan area network.
- It is difficult to maintain.
- It has a high speed.
- It is 75 km Spans a distance
WAN (Wide Area Network): –
Its full name is Wide Area Network. It is a large network in terms of area. This network is not only limited to one building, not only one city, but it works to connect the whole world, ie it is the largest network in which data is sent and received securely.
Computers in this network are connected by leased lines or switch circuits. The geographical periphery of this network is large such as network of networks spread across the entire city, country or continent. Internet is a good example of this. Banks’ ATM facilities are an example of a wide area network.
- It is a wireless network.
- In this, data can be sent and received by Signals or Sate light.
- It is the largest network.
- Through this, we can transfer data all over the world.
Network topology describes the relationship of interconnected devices in terms of geometric graphs. Each device connected in the network is represented as a corner, and the connections between them are represented by lines. It describes how many connections each device has, in which order, and in what type of hierarchy.
Network topology is generally of the following types: –
- Ring Topology
- Bus Topology
- Star Topology
- Mesh Topology
- Tree Topology
- Scope of Computer Network
Following are some ways in which computer network can be beneficial for business.
File Sharing: File Sharing is the most common function provided by a network and involves grouping all data files together on a server or servers. When all the data files of an organization are stored in one place, it is easy for employees to share (share) documents and other data. It also helps arrange files in a systematic way. Network operating systems also help restrict restricted access to these files only for authorized personnel, ie those who have the rights to work on the system (authorized personnel).
Print Sharing: In a network environment, a printer can be shared by multiple users. This can reduce the number of printers that the organization must purchase, maintain, and supply. Network printers are often faster and more capable than printers that are connected to stand alone computers.
E-Mail: Internal or “group email” enables employees in the office to communicate with each other quickly and effectively. Group email applications also provide capabilities for contact management, scheduling and task assignment.
Fax Sharing: When a shared modem is directly connected to a network server, it can send / receive faxes directly. With this feature, users can fax documents (without any need for printing them on to paper) directly from their computer without the need to print them on paper. Incoming faxes can also be handled by the network and sent directly to users’ computers via email. It is not necessary to print a hard copy of every fax with this facility.
Remote Access: Sometimes employees may need to access their email, documents or other data from remote locations. This feature allows users to dial into their organization’s network via telephone and access all network resources as if they are in the office.
Shared Databases: It is a subset of file sharing. If the organization maintains an extensive database – for example, membership, client, grants or financial accounting database – a network at the same time Is the only effective way to provide a data base to multiple users at the same time.
Fault Tolerance: The establishment of Fault Tolerance is a process that ensures that there are multiple lines of defense against accidental data loss. An example of accidental data loss can be a hard drive failure or a deleting a file by mistake. In a network, it can be prevented by maintenance of redundant hardware, tape library, UPS etc.
Internet Access and Security: When computers are network connected, they can share a common network connection to the Internet. It facilitates email, document transfer and access to resources available on the World Wide Web.
Communication and collaboration: A network helps employees to share files, view other people’s work, and exchange ideas more efficiently. Does. In a large office, anyone can use e-mail and instant messaging tools so that they can communicate quickly and communicate messages for future reference. Could store.
Following are the benefits of using the network:
- Can improve communication: Organizations can improve communication by connecting their computers and working on standardized systems so that:
- Staff, suppliers and customers can share their information and interact with each other more easily,
- Information sharing can make the business more efficient – e.g. It is possible to share a file stored in a common data base in a network. By this we can save the same data from being keyed multiple times, which will waste time and result in errors.
- Employees can handle queries better. Therefore, they can provide better quality of service to their customers.
Reduce costs and improve efficiency: By storing information and streamlining work in a centralized database, streamlining working practices, organization costs Can reduce and improve efficiency.
- Staff can deal with more and more customers at the same time.
- Network administration can be centralized. So, less IT support is required.
- The cost can be reduced by sharing external devices such as printers, scanners, external discs, tape drives and Internet access.
Reduction in errors: All employees can work from the same source of information. Therefore, organizations can reduce errors and improve consistency as standard versions of manuals and directories can be provided and a single point based on the data set (single point) can be backed up. This ensures consistency.